**QUOTE OF THE DAY:**

“We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the Universe. That makes us something very special.”~ Stephen Hawking

### STEPHEN HAWKING PASSES AWAY AT AGE 76

**THE STORY**

Famed physicist Stephen Hawking, dies 58 years after his claimed life expectancy of 2 years, leaving the scientific world as hollow as a black hole.

**Biography**

Stephen Hawking was a British scientist, author, and professor who was born on January 8, 1942. At the age of 21, he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the disease took his physical strength due to the muscle weakness in the disease. This didn’t stop him and he has contributed life in providing stupefying insights in physics and cosmology. He also wrote books to make Science easily accessible to all. The great scientist died today on 14 March 2018, when he was 76 years old. His birth and death date both collides with famous scientists. Today is Einstein’s 139th birthday and he was also 76 years old when he died. On the other hand, Stephen Hawking was born on Galileo Galilei’s 300 death anniversary which is January 8th, 1942.

Listed Below are some of the baffling scientific questions he helped answer.

**CAN SINGULARITIES OCCUR IN GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE?**

Stephen Hawking has contributed a lot of things to physics and cosmology. One of them is a theorem on space-time singularities. Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose presented the theorem in such a way that it consolidated and generalized all the previously known results.

According to the theorem, space-time singularities are anticipated if the universe is spatially closed or there is an ‘object’ facing relativistic gravitational collapse or there exists a point P whose past null cone encounters sufficient matter that the divergence of the null rays through p changes sign somewhere to the past of p.

**DO BLACK HOLES RADIATE HEAT?**

Black holes are a region of space which has the gravitational field so intense that no radiation or no matter can escape. According to Stephen, Black holes have their own set of laws that are similar to the more familiar laws of thermodynamics. Hawking has its own theory about the black holes. According to the second law proposed by Hawking is known as Hawking area theorem, “the total surface area of a black hole will never get smaller at least so far as classical (as opposed to quantum) physics is concerned.”

As per the law, the black holes were hot which was quite the opposite of what is mentioned by classical physics that black holes could not radiate heat. Hawking also worked on a theorem called “no hair theorem” of black holes, which states, “Black holes can be characterized by three parameters – their mass, angular momentum, and charge.” All the other information related to the matter vanishes after falling into the black hole.

**HOW DO BLACK HOLES VANISH?**

Physicists before Hawking used to think that nothing can escape a black hole. However, in a theory called Hawking Radiation, he used quantum theory to exhibit that black holes should emit heat and eventually vanish. For normal holes, the process is slow. The black hole with the same mass as of our sun would take longer time than the age of the universe to evaporate. However, if we talk about a black hole with less mass, they evaporate faster and at their end times, they release heat at a striking rate. In the last tenth of a second, a black hole has a capability to detonate and emit energy of a million one-megaton hydrogen bombs.

**HOW GALAXIES SPREAD ACROSS THE UNIVERSE? **

According to a popular theory in cosmology, soon after the big bang, the nascent universe experienced a period of rapid inflation. Hawking was one of the first to display how quantum fluctuations: tiny changes in the distribution of matter during inflation might lead to the spread of galaxies in the universe. It all initiated as a minuscule variation as gravity cluster the matter together which originated the cosmic structure we witness. Hawking talked about the variations way before the Heavens Maps surfaced. The maps captured the faint afterglow of the big bang which is said be similar to the hawking’s variations.

**DOES UNIVERSE FUNCTION LIKE A WAVE?**

Hawking has worked and devoted his time towards developing a quantum theory of gravity. He gave up his idea of applying Euclidean quantum gravity to black holes. However, in 1983, he joined hands with Jim Hartle at Chicago University and they proposed a “wave function of the universe” which could be used to calculate the properties of the universe at least theoretically.

Stephen Hawking was an incredible personality and has devoted his life towards physics. He revealed many things about black holes. He retired from his position as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge in 2009 and accepted a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. He died today but his contribution towards physics and cosmology will stay with us.

May His Soul Rest In Peace!